Applying Multivariate and Univariate Analysis of Variance on Socioeconomic, Health, and Security Variables in Jordan
AbstractMany researchers have studied socioeconomic, health, and security variables in the developed countries; however, very few studies used multivariate analysis in developing countries. The current study contributes to the scarce literature about the determinants of the variance in socioeconomic, health, and security factors. Questions raised were whether the independent variables (IVs) of governorate and year impact the socioeconomic, health, and security dependent variables (DVs) in Jordan, whether the marginal mean of each DV in each governorate and in each year is significant, which governorates are similar in difference means of each DV, and whether these DVs vary. The main objectives were to determine the source of variances in DVs, collectively and separately, testing which governorates are similar and which diverge for each DV. The research design was time series and cross-sectional analysis. The main hypotheses are that IVs affect DVs collectively and separately. We carried out Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance to test these hypotheses. The population of 12 governorates in Jordan and the available data of 15 years (2000–2015) accrued from several Jordanian statistical yearbooks. We investigated the effect of two factors of governorate and year on the four DVs of divorce, mortality, unemployment, and crime. We used the rate of divorce, mortality, and crime, and the percentage of unemployment in the analyses. We transformed all DVs to multivariate normal distribution. We calculated descriptive statistics for each DV in each governorate and each year. We provided visual and numerical inspection of how each DV changed over time in each governorate compared with DV change in other governorates. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, we found a significant effect in IVs on DVs with p < .001. Based on the univariate analysis, we found a significant effect of IVs on each DV with p < .001, except the effect of the year factor on unemployment, was not significant with p = .642. The grand and marginal means of each DV in each governorate and each year were significant based on a 95% confidence interval. Most governorates are not similar in DVs with p < .001. We concluded that the two factors produce significant effects on DVs, collectively and separately. Based on these findings, the government can distribute its financial and physical resources to governorates more efficiently. By identifying the sources of variance that contribute to the variation in DVs, insights can help inform focused variation prevention efforts.
M. Blanquet, E. Labbe-Lobertreau, C. Sass, D. Berger, and L. Gerbaud, Occupational status as a determinant of mental health inequities in French young people: Is fairness needed? Results of a cross-sectional multicentre observational survey, International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 16, no. 142, pp. 1–10, 2017.
D. E. Bloom, D. Canning, and J. Sevilla, Economic Growth and the Demographic Transition, Boston, MA, National Bureau of Economic Research, http://www.nber.org/papers/w8685, 2001.
S. M. Carlson, and R. J. Michalowski, Crime, unemployment, and social structures of accumulation: An inquiry into historical contingency, Justice Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 209–241, 1997.
M. De Goede, and E. Spruijt, Effects of parental divorce and youth unemployment on adolescent health, Patient Education and Counseling, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 269–276, 1996.
D. Diener, R. Inglehart, and L. Tay, Theory and validity of life satisfaction scales, Social Indicators Research, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 497–527, 2013.
F. Ghoreishi, D. Shirmohammadi, and A. Barjvand, Understanding causes of divorce from the viewpoints of the divorced and divorcing couples (the case of Saghez City), Security and Social Order Strategic Studies Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 19–30, 2014.
J. F. Hair, R. E. Anderson, R. E. Anderson, and W. Black, Multivariate Data Analysis, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998.
M. Jalovaara, Socioeconomic differentials in divorce risk by duration of marriage, Demographic Research, vol. 7, pp. 537–564, 2002.
Y. M. Kantar, and S. G. Aktas, Spatial correlation analysis of unemployment rates in Turkey, Journal of Eastern Europe Research in Business and Economics, vol. 2016, pp. 1–9, 2016.
F. G. Khamis, Spatial dimensions of the unemployment rate in Jordan 2008, Austrian Journal of Statistics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 177– 190, 2011.
F. G. Khamis, G. A. El-Refae, and A.-R. F. Fares, Multivariate spatial association between mortality, unemployment, divorce, and crime in Jordan—2011, Journal of Statistical and Econometric Methods, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 49–74, 2014.
M. Kriegbaum, U. Christensen, R. Lund, and M. Osler, Job losses and accumulated number of broken partnerships increase risk of premature mortality in Danish men born in 1953, Journal of Occupational And Environmental Medicine, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 708–713, 2009.
D. Lester, The Impact of Unemployment on Marriage and Divorce, Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, vol. 25, no. 3–4, pp. 151–153, 1996.
D. Lester, and B. Yang, The relationship between divorce, unemployment and female participation in the labour force and suicide rates in Australia and America, The Australian And New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 519–523, 1991.
Y. Lin, Q. Zhang, W. Chen, and L. Ling, The social income inequality, social integration and health status of internal migrants in China, International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 16, pp. 139–150, 2017.
A. Maslauskaite, A. Jasilioniene, D. Jasilionis, V. Stankuniene, and V. M. Shkolnikov, Socio-economic determinants of divorce in Lithuania: Evidence from register-based census-linked data, Demographic Research, vol. 33, no. 30, pp. 871–908, 2015.
M. Umeda, N. Kawakami, and E. Miller, Effect of socioeconomic conditions on health care utilization in marital violence: a crosssectional investigation from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood, International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 16, no. 41, pp. 1–9, 2017.
M. S. Wong, H. C. Ho, L. Yang, W. Shi, J. Yang, and T.-C. Chan, Spatial variability of excess mortality during prolonged dust events in a high density city: a time stratified spatial regression approach, International Journal of Health Geographics, vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 1–14, 2017.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).